Turkesterone (ecdysterone) Muscle Building Studies
World Anti Doping Agency - Ecydsteroid / Turkesterone Study on Muscle Building
Significantly higher increases in muscle mass were observed in those volunteers that were dosed with the ecdysterone supplements. Even more relevant with respect to sports performance, also significantly more pronounced increases in one-repetition bench press performance were observed.
These data underline the effectivity of an ecdysterone supplementation with respect to sports performance. We therefore strongly recommend to include ecdysterone in the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods in sports to improve clean competition in the future. As the exact mechanism of action is not yet fully understood, we suggest to include it in class S1.2 “other anabolic agents”.
Ecdysteroids as non-conventional anabolic agent: performance enhancement by ecdysterone supplementation in humans
Mechanism of the anabolic action of phytoecdisteroids in mammals
In experiments with white mice it has been established that phytoecdisteroides turkesteron, ecdisteron and 2-desoxy-alpha-ecdison in the dose of 5 mg on 1 kg of body mass stimulate the protein synthesis. Using the model of protein synthesis from mice liver it has been shown that the action of phytoecdisteroides is connected with the rise of poliribosome functional activity and rate increase of protein macromolecules formation. Preliminary administration of actinomycin D does not prevent the effect of protein synthesis stimulation. It has been concluded that the anabolic effect of phytoecdisteroides in mammals organism is connected not with induction of RNA synthesis but with the acceleration of translocation processes.
Ecdysteroids elicit a rapid Ca2+ flux leading to Akt activation and increased protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells
Phytoecdysteroids, structurally similar to insect molting hormones, produce a range of effects in mammals, including increasing growth and physical performance. In skeletal muscle cells, phytoecdysteroids increase protein synthesis. In this study we show that in a mouse skeletal muscle cell line, C2C12, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), a common phytoecdysteroid in both insects and plants, elicited a rapid elevation in intracellular calcium, followed by sustained Akt activation and increased protein synthesis. The effect was inhibited by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) inhibitor, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, and a phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K) inhibitor.
Effects and applications of arthropod steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) in mammals
Ecdysteroids increase muscle mass by enhancing protein synthesis and decreasing protein catabolism. It has been suggested that the latter effect operates indirectly through a reduction of glucocorticoid levels (i.e. a reduction of stress), but this assumption has not been directly documented.
Effect of turkesterone and nerobol on the activity of the protein synthesizing system of mouse liver
Protein biosynthesis was stimulated in liver tissue in vivo and in vitro after administration into mice of either phytoecdizone of turkesterone (0.5 mg/100 g) or of anabolic steroid compound nerobole (1 mg/100 g). Stimulation of protein biosynthesis was due to an increase in functional activity of polyribosomes and to elevation in the synthesis of protein molecules. Actinomycin D, which inhibited the stimulation of protein biosynthesis in liver tissue of mice treated with nerobole, did not affect the phenomenon in mice treated with turkesterone.
Effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone on the protein synthesis in pigs
In three metabolic experiments in seven balance periods the effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone on proteosynthesis in growing pigs was studied in 30 individuals. On an identical genotype of animals, doses of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight and 0.4 mg/kg of body weight were examined. Effectiveness was found already in a dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight and it resulted in higher values of resorption and retention of nitrogen experimental animals. Statistically significant differences were observed particularly in the third experiment where a high significance (P/-0.01) of protein deposition in animal bodies was found. In two feeding experiments (40 animals), a higher increase in body weight by 12-16% in the period of 30 days after administration of macromolecular pellets of 20-hydroxyecdysone was found. Also lower consumption of feedstuffs by 11-17% per 1 kg of an increase in body weight was found. In the evaluation of the principal meat parts of slaughtered animals after the termination of feeding (109.5 kg of body weight) the values were not statistically significant in comparison with the control group.
Effect of vitamin D3 and 20-hydroxyecdysone on the content of ATP, creatine phosphate, carnosine and Ca2+ in skeletal muscles
The effect of vitamin D3, 20-hydroxyecdysone and extract from Serratula coronata containing 20-hydroxyecdysone on the level of basic metabolites in the skeletal muscles of rats has been studied. It was shown that development of D-hypovitaminosis is accompanied by the decrease in content of ATP, creatine phosphate, carnosine, and by the increase of Ca2+ content. Against the background of D-hypovitaminosis the 20-hydroxyecdysone and the extract from Serratula coronata which contains 20-hydroxyecdysone promote the increase of the amount of these metabolites up to the control of one and normalize Ca2+ content in them.